eISSN: 2956-7548
ISSN: 1734-1558
Forum Ortodontyczne / Orthodontic Forum
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vol. 17

Dental and orthodontic evaluation of children and adolescents with Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) – a review of the literature

Katarzyna Ludwików
Małgorzata Zadurska
Ewa Czochrowska

Department of Orthodontics, Medical University of Warsaw
Forum Ortod 2021; 17 (3): 237-44
Online publish date: 2021/11/19
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Foetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorders (FASD) are a group of untreatable developmental abnormalities in people whose mothers consumed alcohol during pregnancy. Foetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is the most severe form of the entire spectrum of disorders and anomalies in the craniofacial structure are among its defining features.

The aim of the study was to assess oral health and the occurrence of malocclusions as well as the need for orthodontic treatment in children with FASD based on the available literature.

Material and methods
A literature review based on the following databases was conducted: PubMed, Scopus, Dentistry & Oral Sciences Source, Polish Medical Bibliography, and the following keywords were used: FASD, fetal alcohol syndrome, facial abnormalities, prenatal alcohol exposure. 35 articles from the years 1968–2020 in Polish and English were selected for analysis.

In children and adolescents with FASD, the oral hygiene status is unsatisfactory. There is a higher rate of dental caries and more malocclusions compared to the general population. The main ones include Class II malocclusions, crossbites and teeth crowding. Children with FASD have significantly more dysfunctions and parafunctions in the stomatognathic system.

Children with FASD should receive institutional preventive and therapeutic care, which will allow for systematic control of the oral health status and malocclusions.


foetal alcohol syndrome, FAS, facial dysmorphia, prenatal foetal alcohol exposure