en POLSKI
ISSN: 1734-1558
Forum Ortodontyczne / Orthodontic Forum
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SCImago Journal & Country Rank
2/2019
vol. 14
 
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abstract:

Cephalometry in orthodontic diagnostics – past and present

Sobieska E, Widmańska-Grzywaczewska A. Cephalometry in orthodontic diagnostics – past and present. Orthod Forum 2019; 15: 120-39
Online publish date: 2019/08/27
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Introduction
Detailed research of the human cranium was initiated by anthropologists and anatomists who took various measurements on ancient skeletons. Measurements made on skulls using bone points, called craniometry, were also carried out in living subjects. The technique of finding bone points by palpation by pressing soft tissues on the patient's head was called cephalometry. With regard to cephalograms, there are two-dimensional, lateral, anteriorposterior and axial and three-dimensional cephalograms that use computed tomography images and show structure of the facial skeleton in three dimensions. Many studies have been devoted to comparing conventional and CBCT cephalograms. It has been proven that numerous reference points are easier to assess in 2D cephalograms from CBCT compared to conventional ones. Examinations of the airways in classic and CBCT 3D cephalometry performed in a short interval of time showed high correlation, although it is emphasised that computed tomography is the future tool in full diagnostics of respiratory problems.

Aim
The aim of the study was to present historical background and contemporary applications of cephalometry as a diagnostic tool in orthodontics.

Material and methods
review of the literature from the years 1939–2018 was conducted using specific key words. Discussion. Nowadays, there is a discussion about the benefit-risk ratio of using computed tomography. Many researchers agree that it should not be an examination of choice for each rthodontic patient. However, there are clinical cases where 3D imaging is an excellent diagnostic tool.

Summary
Regarding orthodontic diagnostics, it is extremely important to perform and analyse a cephalogram. However, before referring a patient for this examination, its benefits should be considered and the exposure to cumulative X-ray doses should be taken into account.

keywords:

anthropometry, CBCT, cephalogram, cephalometry, computed tomography